Fuller, E., E. Brush, and M. L. Pinsky, 2015: The persistence of populations facing climate shifts and harvest. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Washington, DC. doi: Black, R., D. Kniveton, and K. Schmidt-Verkerk, 2013: Migration and climate change: Toward an integrated assessment of sensitivity. The impacts of changes in precipitation and temperature on water supply system behavior in the Northeast are complex. A. Examples include the Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin (for the Washington, DC, metropolitan area),304 Boston,295 the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey,357 the St. Regis Mohawk Tribe,360 the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,368 the State of Maine,381 and southeastern Connecticut.417 Structured decision-making is being applied to design management plans, determine research needs, and allocate resources365 to preserve habitat and resources throughout the region.151,366,367. The region’s rural industries and livelihoods are at risk from further changes to forests, wildlife, snowpack, and streamflow (likely). In Jamaica Bay, New York, post–Superstorm Sandy efforts have fostered a set of local, regional, state, and federal actions that link resilience efforts to current climate risk, along with the potential for accelerated sea level rise and its implications for increased flood frequency (Ch. Thunberg, E. M., and S. J. Correia, 2015: Measures of fishing fleet diversity in the New England groundfish fishery. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. Changing climate threatens the health and well-being of people in the Northeast through more extreme weather, warmer temperatures, degradation of air and water quality, and sea level rise. Climate variability can affect human migration patterns56 and may change flows into or out of the Northeast as well as between rural and urban locations. This paper. Such responses include erosion, overwashing, vertical accretion (increasing elevation due to sediment movement), flooding in response to storm events,218,224,225 and landward migration over the longer term as sea level has risen.226 Uplands, forests, and agricultural lands can provide transitional areas for these more dynamic settings, wherein the land gradually converts to a tidal marsh. No matter what kind of academic paper you need, it is simple and affordable to place your order with My Essay Gram. New York Climate Change Science Clearinghouse, 2018: [web site]. Mayor's Office of Sustainability, Philadelphia, PA, various pp. ), medium consensus, Suggestive evidence (a few sources, limited consistency, models incomplete, methods emerging, etc. Mills, 2003: Climate change and the skiing industry in southern Ontario (Canada): Exploring the importance of snowmaking as a technical adaptation. CDC, 2015: CDC's Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE) Framework [web site] . If you need professional help with completing any kind of homework, Success Essays is the right place to get it. Description Over the past 50 years, we have witnessed a revolution in how technology has affected teaching and learning. Selden, R. L., R. D. Batt, V. S. Saba, and M. L. Pinsky, 2017: Diversity in thermal affinity among key piscivores buffers impacts of ocean warming on predator–prey interactions. Pinsky, M. L., and M. Fogarty, 2012: Lagged social-ecological responses to climate and range shifts in fisheries. These environmental changes are expected to lead to health-related impacts and costs, including additional deaths, emergency room visits and hospitalizations, and a lower quality of life (very high confidence). 3: Water, KM 3). Bobb, J. F., K. K. L. Ho, R. W. Yeh, L. Harrington, A. Zai, K. P. Liao, and F. Dominici, 2017: Time-course of cause-specific hospital admissions during snowstorms: An analysis of electronic medical records from major hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts. Northeast Climate Science Center, Amherst, MA, 201 pp. Notaro, M., D. Lorenz, C. Hoving, and M. Schummer, 2014: Twenty-first-century projections of snowfall and winter severity across central-eastern North America. Pace, R. M., P. J. Corkeron, and S. D. Kraus, 2017: State–space mark–recapture estimates reveal a recent decline in abundance of North Atlantic right whales. The frequency of dangerous coastal flooding in the Northeast would more than triple with 2 feet of sea level rise.93 In Boston, the areal extent of a 1% (1 in 100 chance of occurring in any given year) flood is expected to increase multifold in many coastal neighborhoods.295 However, there will likely be notable variability across coastal locations. During extreme heat events, nighttime temperatures in the region’s big cities are generally several degrees higher than surrounding regions, leading to higher risk of heat-related death. Examples from municipalities of varying sizes are common (e.g., U.S. EPA 201733). We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Harmful algal blooms, which can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning in humans, have become more frequent and longer lasting in the Gulf of Maine.335 Similarly, pathogenic strains of the waterborne bacteria Vibrio—which are already causing thousands of foodborne illnesses per year—have expanded northward and have been responsible for increasing cases of illness in oyster consumers in the Northeast region.336,337,338. A decrease in recreational fishing revenue is expected by end of this century under a higher scenario (RCP8.5) with the loss of coldwater habitat.29,131,146. Contosta, A. R., A. Adolph, D. Burchsted, E. Burakowski, M. Green, D. Guerra, M. Albert, J. Dibb, M. Martin, W. H. McDowell, M. Routhier, C. Wake, R. Whitaker, and W. Wollheim, 2017: A longer vernal window: The role of winter coldness and snowpack in driving spring transitions and lags. Changing climate threatens the health and well-being of people in the Northeast through more extreme weather, warmer temperatures, degradation of air and water quality, and sea level rise (very high confidence). 17: Complex Systems).17,59,60 The region’s high density of built environment sites and facilities, large number of historic structures, and older housing and infrastructure compared to other regions suggest that urban centers in the Northeast are particularly vulnerable to climate shifts and extreme weather events. Raposa, K. B., R. L. J. Weber, M. C. Ekberg, and W. Ferguson, 2017: Vegetation dynamics in Rhode Island salt marshes during a period of accelerating sea level rise and extreme sea level events. However, excess moisture is already a leading cause of crop loss in the Northeast.35 Recent and projected increases in precipitation amount, intensity, and persistence124,125 indicate increasing impacts on agricultural operations. By 2035, and under both lower and higher scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5), the Northeast is projected to be more than 3.6°F (2°C) warmer on average than during the preindustrial era. A. Nye, K. E. Mills, M. A. Alexander, N. R. Record, R. Weatherbee, and M. Elisabeth Henderson, 2017: Seasonal trends and phenology shifts in sea surface temperature on the North American northeastern continental shelf. Ziska, L., K. Knowlton, C. Rogers, D. Dalan, N. Tierney, M. A. A. Nye, J. C. Sun, A. C. Thomas, and R. A. Wahle, 2013: Fisheries management in a changing climate: Lessons from the 2012 ocean heat wave in the Northwest Atlantic. Rodenhouse, N. L., L. M. Christenson, D. Parry, and L. E. Green, 2009: Climate change effects on native fauna of northeastern forests. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Centers for Environmental Information, 5 pp. There is high confidence that there are communities in the Northeast undertaking planning efforts to reduce risks posed from climate change and medium confidence that they are implementing climate adaptation. McGraw-Hill Ryerson Biology Authors Trent Carter-Edwards Upper Canada District School Board Susanne Gerards Ottawa Carleton District School Board Keith Gibbons London District Catholic School Board Susan McCallum York Region District School Board Robert Noble Toronto Catholic District School Board Jennifer Parrington Durham District School Board Clyde Ramlochan Toronto District School … Hughes, J. E., L. A. Deegan, J. C. Wyda, M. J. Weaver, and A. Wright, 2002: The effects of eelgrass habitat loss on estuarine fish communities of southern New England. These physical changes may lead to large numbers of evacuated and displaced populations and damaged infrastructure; sustaining communities may require significant investment and planning to provide emergency response efforts, a long-term commitment to rebuilding and adaptation, and support for relocation. A. Hare, 2016: Indicators of climate change and social vulnerability in fishing dependent communities along the Eastern and Gulf Coasts of the United States. Velinsky, D. J., B. Paudel, T. Quirk, M. Piehler, and A. Smyth, 2017: Salt marsh denitrification provides a significant nitrogen sink in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, D.C.. EPA, 2010: Chesapeake Bay total maximum daily load for nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment . Credits • Get high-quality papers at affordable prices. USACE, 2015: North Atlantic coast comprehensive study: Resilient adaptation to increasing risk . 11: Urban). Whether you are looking for essay, coursework, research, or term paper help, or with any other assignments, it is no problem for us. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, pp. A nutria shows off its signature orange teeth. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. Henry, A. M., and T. R. Johnson, 2015: Understanding social resilience in the Maine lobster industry. Columbia University Press, New York,. A short summary of this paper. In coastal areas, partnerships among local communities and federal and state agencies leverage federal adaptation tools and decision support frameworks (the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s [NOAA] Digital Coast, the U.S. Geological Survey’s [USGS] Coastal Change Hazards Portal, New Jersey’s Getting to Resilience). Karegar, M. A., T. H. Dixon, and S. E. Engelhart, 2016: Subsidence along the Atlantic Coast of North America: Insights from GPS and late Holocene relative sea level data. Dawson, J., and D. Scott, 2013: Managing for climate change in the alpine ski sector. Mills, E.D. Gledhill, D. K., M. M. White, J. Salisbury, H. Thomas, I. Mlsna, M. Liebman, B. Mook, J. Grear, A. C. Candelmo, R. C. Chambers, C. J. Gobler, C. W. Hunt, A. L. King, N. N. Price, S. R. Signorini, E. Stancioff, C. Stymiest, R. A. Wahle, J. D. Waller, N. D. Rebuck, Z. Newport Restoration Foundation, Newport RI. A number of studies have replicated these findings specifically in the Northeast (see Box 18.3; e.g., Wellenius et al. 16: International, Key Message 1). Peer, A. C., and T. J. Miller, 2014: Climate change, migration phenology, and fisheries management interact with unanticipated consequences. Hall, S. H. Jones, V. S. Cooper, and C. A. Whistler, 2015: Genetic characterization of clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the Northeast USA reveals emerging resident and non-indigenous pathogen lineages. 669–742. Reports on climate adaptation and resilience planning have been published by city, state, and tribal governments and by regional and federal agencies in the Northeast. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), North Atlantic Division, Brooklyn, NY, 116 pp. This combination of heat stress and poor urban air quality can pose a major health risk to vulnerable groups: young children, elderly, socially or linguistically isolated, economically disadvantaged, and those with preexisting health conditions, including asthma. Gray, M. A. Friedl, M. Toomey, G. Bohrer, D. Y. Hollinger, J. W. Munger, J. O/'Keefe, H. P. Schmid, I. S. Wing, B. Yang, and A. D. Richardson, 2014: Net carbon uptake has increased through warming-induced changes in temperate forest phenology. A. Nye, A. J. Pershing, and A. C. Thomas, 2018: Projected sea surface temperatures over the 21st century: Changes in the mean, variability and extremes for large marine ecosystem regions of Northern Oceans.